ECOLOGIST www.fenton.scot James H C Fenton
Note: My website address has changed to www.fenton.scot This is because after Brexit the .eu domain name will no longer be valid.The old address waswww.james-hc-fenton.eu Contact: James FentonPolldoranClachan SeilOBAN PA37 4TJScotland ecology@fenton.scot  All items on this site Copyright James HC Fenton © 2018 Items on this site may be copied, downloaded or printed for personal use but must not be used in any way for commercial gain. Website produced by James Fenton using Xara Web Designer
Climate Change, Grazing & Land Use   March 2020 There is now a new Climate change & land use section of my website. There is a lot of talk in conservation circles and the media on the impact of land use on climate change. However it is a complex subject and it would appear that carbon flows are not understood by most; for example the difference between carbon emissions from the use of fossil carbon and carbon emissions which are merely recycling of atmospheric carbon. When we burn fossil fuels we are adding new carbon to the atmosphere, the cause of global warming. However when animals belch methane this does not result in an increase on atmospheric carbon: they are merely recycling the carbon fixed by the plants they eat. Certainly the methane they belch is a strong greenhouse gas, but its time in the atmosphere is short compared to the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Animal husbandry, particularly intensive farming, certainly does release a new greenhouses to the atmosphere but this is through the use of fossil carbon in transport, farm machinery, fertiliser & pesticide production, and the processing of animal feed. However most of these outputs will also apply to crop growing as currently managed. The only way to reduce these carbon outputs is replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy, with no input of fertilisers dependent on fossil fuels for their manufacture. Otherwise moving to a vegetarian diet will not make much difference to the climate! Certainly replacement of tropical rainforest to animal pasture in some parts of the world does add to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, but this is not relevant to UK farming. In the UK before the advent of the industrial manufacture of fertilisers, animals were an essential part of crop rotation, the dunging effect of animals being essential to maintain long-term soil fertility. If animals are no longer part of the farming scene, then soil fertility can only be maintained through the continual use of industrial-manufactured fertilisers (although the use of legumes such as clover can fulfil the nitrogen deficit). Can these be produced in a carbon-neutral way? The return to more environmentally extensive farming does rely on animals. Additionally, a significant proportion of the UK’s biodiversity is grazing- dependent, such as chalk grassland, limestone grassland and lowland heath: if animals are no longer part of the agricultural scene, then this biodiversity will be lost. And does wool not have a bright future as a non-fossil fuel, non- plastic textile? Climate change mitigation & nature conservation not always on the same side! There appears also to be a strong belief amongst conservationists that conservation of habitats and climate mitigation are always on the same side, but there is no a priori reason why this should be the case! There are times when, if we want to conserve the landscapes and natural habitats of the UK, we will have to decide which is more important: climate mitigation or preventing the loss of habitats. The papers in the new Climate change & land use section of my website address these issues, and also point out that tree planting in the UK does not necessarily mitigate climate change.
A View from Argyll James Fenton’s perspective on current conservation issues Click here for previous blogs
*October 2019* James Fenton’s latest paper, first published online at www.fenton.scot 9 October 2019
WOODLAND OR OPEN GROUND? Scenarios for the persistence of woodland in the presence of grazing The Highlands of Scotland as an example
*NEWISH* MUSINGS ON THE MEANING OF WILD A wild experience. The wild Highlands. Really wild! Wildlife. Wild nature. Wild land. Wildness. Wilderness. Re-wild… We use the word ‘wild’ all the time but what does it mean? With all the current talk of wild land and rewilding, this essay is particularly relevant. It was first published in Wild Land News Issue 95 (Summer 2019), magazine of the Scottish Wild Land Group It can be accessed here. pdf A5 9pp 6mb