James H C Fenton ECOLOGIST www.fenton.scot
POLAR Field Guide to Ice Antarctic peat Antarctic vegetation Polar novels
For a full description of the mosses of Antarctica see: The Illustrated Moss Flora of Antarctica Edited by Ryszard Ochyra, Ronald I. Lewis Smith & Halina Bednarek-Ochyra Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-81402-7, 685 pp.
4. Terrestrial algae and fungi 1: The green alga Prasiola crispa is common on the ground in penguin rookeries. 2-3: ‘Red snow’ composed of the green alga Chlamydomanas nivalis. Note that the green chlorophyll is masked by a red pigment. This alga grows directly on the snow, and becomes concentrated as the snow melts at the end of summer causing the snow to turn pink. Picture 3 shows a small ice-cap covering an island which has melted back to ice with a covering of snow algae. 4: Green snow (picture taken in Spitsbergen). Green snow is often found near bird colonies where the bird droppings fertilise the snow.  5: Two snowballs, one made of red snow and one of green snow. 6: A fungal fairy ring in a turf of the moss Chorisodontium aciphyllum on Signy Island (South Orkneys). Note the metre rule for scale. 7: A close-up of a fairy ring: the fungus is advancing right to left. 8: Close-up of the moss Chorisodontium showing ‘pockmarks’ resulting from a fungal infection. 9-10: Fairy rings spreading through a carpet of the moss Drepanocladus uncinatus. Note mushrooms are visible.  For further information on fairy rings in Antarctic moss see the paper: Fenton, J. 1983: Concentric fungal rings in Antarctic moss communities. Transactions of the British Mycological Society Vol. 80.  1 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 2 9